About the Authors

Kabemba E. Mwape

Affiliation Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Isaac K. Phiri

Affiliation Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Nicolas Praet

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

John B. Muma

Affiliation Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Gideon Zulu

Affiliation Petauke District Hospital, Petauke, Zambia

Peter Van den Bossche

† Deceased.

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

Reginald de Deken

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

Niko Speybroeck

Affiliation Institute of Health and Society, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

Pierre Dorny

Affiliations Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Sarah Gabriël

sgabriel@itg.be

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KEM IKP PVdB PD SG. Performed the experiments: KEM JBM GZ SG. Analyzed the data: KEM NP RdD NS PD SG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NP RdD NS PD SG. Wrote the paper: KEM IKP NP JBM GZ RdD NS PD SG.