About the Authors

Hong-En Lin

Affiliation Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Wen-Yang Tsai

Affiliation Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

I-Ju Liu

Affiliation Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

Pi-Chun Li

Affiliation Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

Mei-Ying Liao

Affiliation Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

Jih-Jin Tsai

Affiliations Tropical Medicine Center and Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Yi-Chieh Wu

Affiliation Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

Chih-Yun Lai

Affiliation Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

Chih-Hsuan Lu

Affiliation Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Jyh-Hsiung Huang

Affiliation Department of Health, Center for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan

Gwong-Jen Chang

Affiliation Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Department of Health and Human Service, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

Han-Chung Wu

Affiliation Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

Wei-Kung Wang

wangwk@hawaii.edu

Affiliations Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HEL WKW. Performed the experiments: HEL WYT IJL PCL MYL YCW CYL CHL. Analyzed the data: HEL WYT YCW WKW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JJT JHH GJC HCW. Wrote the paper: HEL WKW.