About the Authors

Mark P. Skinner

Affiliation National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia

Tom D. Brewer

Affiliation ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

Ron Johnstone

Affiliation Coastal Ecosystems and Resource Management, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management and Centre for Marine Studies, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia

Lora E. Fleming

Affiliations European Centre for Environment and Human Health, Peninsula College of Medicine, Truro, Cornwall, United Kingdom, National Science Foundation (NSF)-National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Oceans and Human Health Center, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States of America

Richard J. Lewis


Affiliation Institute of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MPS TDB RJL. Performed the experiments: MPS. Analyzed the data: MPS TDB RJL. Wrote the paper: MPS TDB LEF RJ RJL.