About the Authors

Ahmed Ahmed

Contributed equally to this work with: Ahmed Ahmed, Janjira Thaipadungpanit

a.ahmed@kit.nl

Affiliation WHO/FAO/OIE and National Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, Department of Biomedical Research, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Janjira Thaipadungpanit

Contributed equally to this work with: Ahmed Ahmed, Janjira Thaipadungpanit

Affiliations Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, Medical Proteomics Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

Siriphan Boonsilp

Affiliation Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Vanaporn Wuthiekanun

Affiliation Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Kishore Nalam

Affiliation Pathogen Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India

Brian G. Spratt

Affiliation Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

David M. Aanensen

Affiliation Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Lee D. Smythe

Affiliation WHO/FAO/OIE Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Queensland Health Scientific Services, Brisbane, Australia

Niyaz Ahmed

Affiliations Pathogen Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Edward J. Feil

Affiliation Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom

Rudy A. Hartskeerl

Affiliation WHO/FAO/OIE and National Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, Department of Biomedical Research, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Sharon J. Peacock

Affiliations Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RAH SJP. Performed the experiments: AA JT SB VW EJF. Analyzed the data: NA BGS DMA LDS EJF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NA BGS DMA LDS EJF. Wrote the paper: AA JT KN EJF RAH SJP.