About the Authors

Naomi A. Dyer, Kwang-Shik Choi, Keith Steen, Michael J. Lehane, Martin J. Donnelly
Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Sophie Ravel, Sandrine Causse
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 177 IRD-CIRAD, LRCT Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier, France

Alistair C. Darby
School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Berisha Kapitano
Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia Tsetse Eradication Project, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Martin J. R. Hall
Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom

Pascal Lutumba, Joules Madinga
Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine, Kinshasa University, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Steve J. Torr
Agriculture, Health and Environment Group, National Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, United Kingdom

Loyce M. Okedi
National Livestock Resources Research Institute, Tororo, Uganda

Martin J. Donnelly
Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NAD SR MJD. Performed the experiments: NAR SR KSC ACD SC MJRH KS. Analyzed the data: NAD SR MJD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BK PL JM ST LMO MJL. Wrote the manuscript: NAD SR MJD.