About the Authors

Emma M. Harding-Esch

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Martin J. Holland

Affiliations London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Jean-François Schémann

Affiliation Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Dakar, Sénégal

Sandra Molina

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Isatou Sarr

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Aura A. Andreasen

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Chrissy h. Roberts

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Ansumana Sillah

Affiliation National Eye Care Programme, Ministry of Health, Banjul, The Gambia

Boubacar Sarr

Affiliation Programme National de Lutte contre la Cécité, Ministère de la Santé, Dakar, Sénégal

Edward F. Harding

Affiliation Ely, United Kingdom

Tansy Edwards

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Robin L. Bailey

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

David C. W. Mabey

david.mabey@lshtm.ac.uk

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EHE MH JFS AS BS RB DM. Performed the experiments: EHE MH SM IS CR AA. Analyzed the data: EHE EH TE MH JFS AS BS CR RB DM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EHE MH CR. Wrote the paper: EHE RB DM. Acquired field data: EHE JFS AS BS MH RB. Critically read and contributed to the manuscript, saw and approved the final version: EHE MH JFS SM IS AA CR AS BS EH TE RB DM.