About the Authors

Emma M. Harding-Esch, Martin J. Holland, Sandra Molina, Aura A. Andreasen, Chrissy h. Roberts, Tansy Edwards, Robin L. Bailey, David C. W. Mabey
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Martin J. Holland, Isatou Sarr
Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Jean-François Schémann
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Dakar, Sénégal

Ansumana Sillah
National Eye Care Programme, Ministry of Health, Banjul, The Gambia

Boubacar Sarr
Programme National de Lutte contre la Cécité, Ministère de la Santé, Dakar, Sénégal

Edward F. Harding
Ely, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

david.mabey@lshtm.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EHE MH JFS AS BS RB DM. Performed the experiments: EHE MH SM IS CR AA. Analyzed the data: EHE EH TE MH JFS AS BS CR RB DM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EHE MH CR. Wrote the paper: EHE RB DM. Acquired field data: EHE JFS AS BS MH RB. Critically read and contributed to the manuscript, saw and approved the final version: EHE MH JFS SM IS AA CR AS BS EH TE RB DM.