About the Authors

Michel M. Dione

Affiliations International Trypanotolerance Centre, Banjul, The Gambia, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

Usman N. Ikumapayi

Affiliation Medical Research Council (UK) Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia

Debasish Saha

Affiliation Medical Research Council (UK) Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia

Nuredin I. Mohammed

Affiliation Medical Research Council (UK) Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia

Stanny Geerts

Affiliation Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium

Margareta Ieven

Affiliation University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

Richard A. Adegbola

Affiliation Medical Research Council (UK) Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia

Martin Antonio

mantonio@mrc.gm

Affiliation Medical Research Council (UK) Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MMD RAA MA. Performed the experiments: MMD UNI DS MA. Analyzed the data: MMD NIM MA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SG MI. Wrote the paper: MMD MA.