About the Authors

Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Aaron M. Hasenkrug, Aashish R. Jha, Ijeoma G. Eccles-James, Raphaella G. S. Vieira, Vanessa A. York, Glen M. Chew, Douglas F. Nixon
Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Fabio E. Leal, Karina I. Carvalho, Fernanda R. Bruno, Esper G. Kallas
Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Fabio E. Leal, Aluisio C. Segurado, Esper G. Kallas
Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

R. Brad Jones, Mario A. Ostrowski
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Yuetsu Tanaka
Department of Immunology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

Walter K. Neto, Sabri S. Sanabani
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

L.C. Ndhlovu, R. Brad Jones, M.A. Ostrowski and D.F. Nixon are named as inventors on a patent application related to modulation of Tim-3 in viral infections.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LCN FEL DFN EGK. Performed the experiments: LCN FEL AMH ARJ GMC IGE-J FRB VAY WKN SSS RGSV. Analyzed the data: LCN FEL AMH ARJ KIC IGE-J VAY. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LCN DFN ACS EGK SSS WKN YT. Wrote the paper: LCN FEL. Technical and scientific input: RBJ MAO. Edited the manuscript: DFN EGK.