About the Authors

Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu

Contributed equally to this work with: Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Fabio E. Leal

lndhlovu@medsfgh.ucsf.edu; lndhlovu@hawaii.edu

Affiliation Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Fabio E. Leal

Contributed equally to this work with: Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu, Fabio E. Leal

Affiliations Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Aaron M. Hasenkrug

Affiliation Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Aashish R. Jha

Affiliation Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Karina I. Carvalho

Affiliation Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Ijeoma G. Eccles-James

Affiliation Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Fernanda R. Bruno

Affiliation Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Raphaella G. S. Vieira

Affiliation Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Vanessa A. York

Affiliation Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Glen M. Chew

Affiliation Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

R. Brad Jones

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Yuetsu Tanaka

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

Walter K. Neto

Affiliation Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Sabri S. Sanabani

Affiliation Molecular Biology Laboratory, Fundação Pró-Sangue, Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Mario A. Ostrowski

Affiliation Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Aluisio C. Segurado

Affiliation Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Douglas F. Nixon

These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Esper G. Kallas

These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Competing Interests

L.C. Ndhlovu, R. Brad Jones, M.A. Ostrowski and D.F. Nixon are named as inventors on a patent application related to modulation of Tim-3 in viral infections.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LCN FEL DFN EGK. Performed the experiments: LCN FEL AMH ARJ GMC IGE-J FRB VAY WKN SSS RGSV. Analyzed the data: LCN FEL AMH ARJ KIC IGE-J VAY. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LCN DFN ACS EGK SSS WKN YT. Wrote the paper: LCN FEL. Technical and scientific input: RBJ MAO. Edited the manuscript: DFN EGK.