About the Authors

Nicholas R. Casewell, Darren A. N. Cook, Simon C. Wagstaff, Robert A. Harrison
Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Nicholas R. Casewell, Wolfgang Wüster
School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom

Abdulsalami Nasidi, Nandul Durfa
Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

NRC is now an employee of MicroPharm Ltd., but was not when the experiments were conceived and conducted. RAH, AN and ND are members of the EchiTAb Study Group, whose objective is to ensure that snakebite victims gain access to effective antivenom treatment.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NRC SCW WW RAH. Performed the experiments: NRC DANC RAH. Analyzed the data: NRC SCW RAH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AN ND RAH. Wrote the paper: NRC RAH.