About the Authors

Isa S. Abubakar
Department of Community Medicine, Bayero University of Kano, Kano, Nigeria

Saidu B. Abubakar
General Hospital Kaltungo, Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria

Abdulrazaq G. Habib
Department of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria

Abdulsalam Nasidi, Nandul Durfa
Special Projects Unit, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

Peter O. Yusuf
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

John Garnvwa, R. David G Theakston
Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Elijah Sokomba
Department of Pharmacology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Lateef Salako
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Ed Juszczak, Nicola Alder
Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

David A. Warrell
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AN ND SL JG ES LS RDGT DAW. Performed the experiments: ISA SBA AGH ND POY SL JG ES LS RDGT DAW. Analyzed the data: ISA AGH POY RDGT EJ NA DAW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RDGT. Wrote the paper: ISA SBA AGH AN ND POY SL JG ES LS RDGT EJ NA DAW. Designed the study protocol: AGH RDGT EJ NA DAW. Carried out the clinical assessments: ISA SAB AGH SL DAW. Identified the snakes: POY DAW. Responsible for trial logistics: AN ND JG. Contributed to the EchiTAb Study Group Nigeria: ES LS. Managed the database: ISA AGH. Provided statistical advice on analysis of data: EJ NA AGH. Assessed and interpreted the study outcomes: AGH RDGT EJ NA DAW. Drafted the manuscript: ISA AGH RDGT EJ DAW.