About the Authors

Isa S. Abubakar

Affiliation Department of Community Medicine, Bayero University of Kano, Kano, Nigeria

Saidu B. Abubakar

Affiliation General Hospital Kaltungo, Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria

Abdulrazaq G. Habib

abdulrazaq_habib@yahoo.co.uk

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria

Abdulsalam Nasidi

Affiliation Special Projects Unit, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

Nandul Durfa

Affiliation Special Projects Unit, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria

Peter O. Yusuf

Affiliation Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Solomon Larnyang

† Deceased.

John Garnvwa

Affiliation Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Elijah Sokomba

Affiliation Department of Pharmacology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Lateef Salako

Affiliation Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

R. David G Theakston

Affiliation Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Ed Juszczak

Affiliation Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Nicola Alder

Affiliation Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

David A. Warrell

Affiliation Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

for the Nigeria-UK EchiTab Study Group

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AN ND SL JG ES LS RDGT DAW. Performed the experiments: ISA SBA AGH ND POY SL JG ES LS RDGT DAW. Analyzed the data: ISA AGH POY RDGT EJ NA DAW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RDGT. Wrote the paper: ISA SBA AGH AN ND POY SL JG ES LS RDGT EJ NA DAW. Designed the study protocol: AGH RDGT EJ NA DAW. Carried out the clinical assessments: ISA SAB AGH SL DAW. Identified the snakes: POY DAW. Responsible for trial logistics: AN ND JG. Contributed to the EchiTAb Study Group Nigeria: ES LS. Managed the database: ISA AGH. Provided statistical advice on analysis of data: EJ NA AGH. Assessed and interpreted the study outcomes: AGH RDGT EJ NA DAW. Drafted the manuscript: ISA AGH RDGT EJ DAW.