About the Authors

Qin Ping Zhao

Affiliations Department of Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China

Ming Sen Jiang

Affiliation Department of Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China

D. Timothy J. Littlewood

Affiliation Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, United Kingdom

Pin Nie

pinnie@ihb.ac.cn

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: QPZ MSJ PN. Performed the experiments: QPZ. Analyzed the data: QPZ TJL. Wrote the paper: QPZ TJL. Wrote some of the manuscript: PN.