About the Authors

Qin Ping Zhao, Ming Sen Jiang
Department of Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China

Qin Ping Zhao, Pin Nie
State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China

D. Timothy J. Littlewood
Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: QPZ MSJ PN. Performed the experiments: QPZ. Analyzed the data: QPZ TJL. Wrote the paper: QPZ TJL. Wrote some of the manuscript: PN.