About the Authors

Emma M. Harding-Esch

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Tansy Edwards

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Ansumana Sillah

Affiliation National Eye Care Programme, Ministry of Health, Banjul, The Gambia

Isatou Sarr

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Chrissy H. Roberts

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Paul Snell

Affiliations Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, ALSPAC, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Esther Aryee

Affiliation Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

Sandra Molina

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Martin J. Holland

Affiliations London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia

David C. W. Mabey

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Robin L. Bailey

robin.bailey@lshtm.ac.uk

Affiliation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EMHE AS CHR MJH DCM RLB. Performed the experiments: EMHE AS IS EA SM RLB. Analyzed the data: EMHE TE CHR RLB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AS PS MJH DCM RLB. Wrote the paper: EMHE TE AS IS CHR PS EA SM MJH DCM RLB. Database design, management, and data entry: EMHE PS.