About the Authors

Michael A. Matthias

Contributed equally to this work with: Michael A. Matthias, Jessica N. Ricaldi

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Jessica N. Ricaldi

Contributed equally to this work with: Michael A. Matthias, Jessica N. Ricaldi

Affiliations Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Alexander von Humboldt Institute of Tropical Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

Manuel Cespedes

Affiliation Leptospirosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru

M. Monica Diaz

Affiliation CONICET (Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas) and PIDBA (Programa de Investigaciones de Biodiversidad Argentina), Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina

Renee L. Galloway

Affiliation Leptospirosis Laboratory, Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Mayuko Saito

Affiliation Asociacion Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru

Arnold G. Steigerwalt

Affiliation Leptospirosis Laboratory, Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Kailash P. Patra

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Carlos Vidal Ore

Affiliation Directorate of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Loreto Department, Iquitos, Peru

Eduardo Gotuzzo

Affiliation Alexander von Humboldt Institute of Tropical Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

Robert H. Gilman

Affiliation Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Paul N. Levett

plevett@health.gov.sk.ca (PNL); jvinetz@ucsd.edu (JMV)

Affiliation Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada

Joseph M. Vinetz

plevett@health.gov.sk.ca (PNL); jvinetz@ucsd.edu (JMV)

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MM JR MC MD RLG KP CV EG RHG JV. Performed the experiments: MM JR MC MD RLG AS KP RG. Analyzed the data: MM JR MC MD RLG MS AS KP CV EG RHG PL JV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MM JR MC MD RLG AS KP JV. Wrote the paper: MM JR MD RLG MS KP EG RHG PL JV.