About the Authors

Salome Dürr

Affiliation Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Service Naïssengar

Affiliation Laboratoire de Recherches Vétérinaires et Zootechniques de Farcha, N'Djaména, Tchad

Rolande Mindekem

Affiliation Centre de Support en Santé International, N'Djaména, Tchad

Colette Diguimbye

Affiliation Laboratoire de Recherches Vétérinaires et Zootechniques de Farcha, N'Djaména, Tchad

Michael Niezgoda

Affiliation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Ivan Kuzmin

Affiliation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Charles E. Rupprecht

Affiliation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Jakob Zinsstag

jakob.zinsstag@unibas.ch

Affiliation Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SD SN RM CD JZ. Performed the experiments: SD SN RM MN IK. Analyzed the data: SD JZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SD MN IK CR. Wrote the paper: SD. Supervisor of the study, revising of the manuscript: JZ. Coordination of the study between different institutions in Chad: CD. Revising of the manuscript: MN IK CR.