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Table of Contents: September 2006

The cover image takes its theme from the paper by Christopher Murray, Majid Ezzati, and colleagues, which uses a number of factors including race, sex, and place of residence to investigate patterns of mortality across the United States. Using such combinations, the authors defined "eight Americas," between which life expectancy could vary by as much as 20 years.

Image Credit: Cover design by Natalie Davis, Public Library of Science, with image taken from Murray et al.

The PLoS Medicine Debates

Was the “ABC” Approach (Abstinence, Being Faithful, Using Condoms) Responsible for Uganda's Decline in HIV?

Elaine M Murphy, Margaret E Greene, Alexandra Mihailovic, Peter Olupot-Olupot

Essays

Noncommunicable Diseases and Injuries in Latin America and the Caribbean: Time for Action

Pablo Perel, Juan P Casas, Zulma Ortiz, J. Jaime Miranda

Neglected Diseases

River Blindness: A Success Story under Threat?

María-Gloria Basáñez, Sébastien D. S Pion, Thomas S Churcher, Lutz P Breitling, Mark P Little, Michel Boussinesq

Perspectives

Health in Action

The City Initiative for Newborn Health

Armida Fernandez, David Osrin

Policy Forums

Antidepressants and Violence: Problems at the Interface of Medicine and Law

David Healy, Andrew Herxheimer, David B Menkes

Regenerative Medicine and the Developing World

Heather L Greenwood, Peter A Singer, Gregory P Downey, Douglas K Martin, Halla Thorsteinsdóttir, Abdallah S Daar

Research in Translation

Which Topical Microbicides for Blocking HIV-1 Transmission Will Work in the Real World?

Per Johan Klasse, Robin J Shattock, John P Moore

Learning Forums

A Gambian Infant with Fever and an Unexpected Blood Film

Stephen Howie, Malcolm Guy, Louise Fleming, Wendi Bailey, Harry Noyes, Joseph Axel Faye, Jacques Pepin, Brian Greenwood, Hilton Whittle, David Molyneux, Tumani Corrah

Research Articles

SARS: Systematic Review of Treatment Effects

Lauren J Stockman, Richard Bellamy, Paul Garner

Reducing the Impact of the Next Influenza Pandemic Using Household-Based Public Health Interventions

Joseph T Wu, Steven Riley, Christophe Fraser, Gabriel M Leung

Live, Attenuated Influenza A H5N1 Candidate Vaccines Provide Broad Cross-Protection in Mice and Ferrets

Amorsolo L Suguitan Jr., Josephine McAuliffe, Kimberly L Mills, Hong Jin, Greg Duke, Bin Lu, Catherine J Luke, Brian Murphy, David E Swayne, George Kemble, Kanta Subbarao

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A Multicentre Study of Shigella Diarrhoea in Six Asian Countries: Disease Burden, Clinical Manifestations, and Microbiology

Lorenz von Seidlein, Deok Ryun Kim, Mohammad Ali, Hyejon Lee, XuanYi Wang, Vu Dinh Thiem, Do Gia Canh, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Magdarina D Agtini, Anowar Hossain, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Carl Mason, Ornthipa Sethabutr, Kaisar Talukder, G. B Nair, Jacqueline L Deen, Karen Kotloff, John Clemens

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Emergence of Drug Resistance Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Death among Patients First Starting HAART

Robert S Hogg, David R Bangsberg, Viviane D Lima, Chris Alexander, Simon Bonner, Benita Yip, Evan Wood, Winnie W. Y Dong, Julio S. G Montaner, P. Richard Harrigan

New Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A, W135, C, and Y

Suzanne Chanteau, Sylvie Dartevelle, Ali Elhadj Mahamane, Saacou Djibo, Pascal Boisier, Farida Nato

Feasibility and Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study in the Philippines

Thelma E Tupasi, Rajesh Gupta, Ma Imelda D Quelapio, Ruth B Orillaza, Nona Rachel Mira, Nellie V Mangubat, Virgil Belen, Nida Arnisto, Lualhati Macalintal, Michael Arabit, Jaime Y Lagahid, Marcos Espinal, Katherine Floyd

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Patient Outcomes with Teaching Versus Nonteaching Healthcare: A Systematic Review

Panagiotis N Papanikolaou, Georgia D Christidi, John P. A Ioannidis

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Regulation of Peripheral Inflammation by Spinal p38 MAP Kinase in Rats

David L Boyle, Toni L Jones, Deepa Hammaker, Camille I Svensson, Sanna Rosengren, Salvatore Albani, Linda Sorkin, Gary S Firestein

A New Arthritis Therapy with Oxidative Burst Inducers

Malin Hultqvist, Peter Olofsson, Kyra A Gelderman, Jens Holmberg, Rikard Holmdahl

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In Celiac Disease, a Subset of Autoantibodies against Transglutaminase Binds Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Induces Activation of Monocytes

Giovanna Zanoni, Riccardo Navone, Claudio Lunardi, Giuseppe Tridente, Caterina Bason, Simona Sivori, Ruggero Beri, Marzia Dolcino, Enrico Valletta, Roberto Corrocher, Antonio Puccetti

Correspondence

Crossing the Language Limitations

Zhenglun Pan, Jin Gao

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Authors' Response to Hogan

Bart L Haagmans, Albert D. M. E Osterhaus

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