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Carbon trading, co-pollutants, and environmental equity: Evidence from California’s cap-and-trade program (2011–2015)

Fig 3

Mean percent change and 95% confidence interval of co-pollutant emissions per 1% change in greenhouse gas emissions.

Estimates were obtained from a mixed effects regression model of annual panel (longitudinal) data from 2011–2015 with a random intercept and random slope for facility. N’s for each pollutant category refer to the number of facilities. PM2.5, particulate matter <2.5 micrometers; NOx, nitrogen oxides; SOx, sulfur oxides; VOC, volatile organic compound.

Fig 3

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002604.g003