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Gabapentin, opioids, and the risk of opioid-related death: A population-based nested case–control study

Fig 2

Association between co-prescription with gabapentin and opioids and opioid overdose.

Association between co-prescription of gabapentin and opioids and opioid overdose, adjusted for age, opioid dose, medication use in the prior 120 days (pregabalin, SSRIs, other antidepressants, benzodiazepines, other psychotropic drugs/CNS depressants, long-acting opioid, methadone/buprenorphine), number of drugs dispensed in the past 6 months, alcohol use disorder, chronic lung disease, diabetes, Charlson Comorbidity Index, number of opioid prescribers in the past 6 months, and number of pharmacies dispensing opioids in the past 6 months. Neutral exposure model (NSAIDs) is also adjusted for gabapentin use in prior 120 days. NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002396.g002