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Association of pre-pregnancy body mass index with offspring metabolic profile: Analyses of 3 European prospective birth cohorts

Fig 5

Linear fit between paternal and maternal models (green dashed line).

Each green dot represents a metabolic trait and the positions of the dots are determined by difference in mean offspring metabolite (in SD units) for each increase of 1-SD maternal body mass index (BMI) (x-axis) and difference in mean offspring metabolite (in SD units) for each increase in 1-SD paternal BMI (y-axis). The horizontal grey lines on each dot denote the confidence intervals (CI) for maternal associations and the vertical grey lines indicate the CI for paternal estimates. A linear fit of the overall correspondence summarises the similarity in magnitude between maternal and paternal associations (green dashed line). A slope of 1 with an intercept of 0 (dashed grey line), with all green dots sitting on that line (R2 = 1), would indicate that maternal and paternal estimates had the same magnitude and direction. R2 indicates goodness of linear fit and as such is a measure of the consistency between maternal and paternal associations. Results are shown in SD-scaled concentration units of outcome, difference in absolute concentration units are listed in S3 Table. Abbreviations: C, cholesterol; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Fig 5