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Mortality in Iraq Associated with the 2003–2011 War and Occupation: Findings from a National Cluster Sample Survey by the University Collaborative Iraq Mortality Study

Figure 7

Density of civilian deaths in Baghdad, with the cluster locations of the University Collaborative Iraq Mortality Study as well as 2006 cluster locations of a previous study [30].

The density map was generated using a kernel density estimation of civilian deaths from the Wikileaks Iraq War Logs release [55]. The kernel density estimation provides a smoothed surface from a point pattern that represents spatial variation in the density of events, in this case civilian deaths. This allows for a crude visual analysis of the variation of events across space in Baghdad as well as the relation of 2006 and 2011 cluster locations to the density of civilian deaths. Analysis is based on geolocated data of all civilian deaths by any means reported in the Wikileaks Iraq War Logs data from 2004 to 2009.

Figure 7

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001533.g007