About the Authors

Mary K. Grabowski

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Justin Lessler

jlessler@jhsph.edu

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Andrew D. Redd

Affiliation Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Joseph Kagaayi

Affiliation Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

Oliver Laeyendecker

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Anthony Ndyanabo

Affiliation Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

Martha I. Nelson

Affiliation Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Derek A. T. Cummings

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

John Baptiste Bwanika

Affiliation Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

Amy C. Mueller

Affiliation School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Steven J. Reynolds

Affiliations Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Supriya Munshaw

Affiliation School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Stuart C. Ray

Affiliation School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Tom Lutalo

Affiliation Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

Jordyn Manucci

Affiliation School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Aaron A. R. Tobian

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Larry W. Chang

Affiliations Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Chris Beyrer

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Jacky M. Jennings

Affiliation School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Fred Nalugoda

Affiliation Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

David Serwadda

Affiliations Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda, School of Public Health, College of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Maria J. Wawer

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

Thomas C. Quinn

Affiliations Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Ronald H. Gray

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

the Rakai Health Sciences Program

Competing Interests

JL is a PLOS Medicine Statistical Advisor. CB is a member of the Editorial Board of PLOS Medicine. DC has acted as a consultant to Medimmune on issues unrelated to HIV (influenza). The authors declare no other competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MKG JL ADR MJW DS RHG. Performed the experiments: MKG AM JM. Analyzed the data: MKG JL MIN AN JBB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: OL MIN TCQ. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: MKG JL RG. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: MKG JL ADR JK OL AN MIN DATC JBB ACM SCR SM SCR TL JM AART LWC CB JMJ FN DS MJW TCQ RHG. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MKG JL ADR JK OL AN MIN DATC JBB ACM SCR SM SCR TL JM AART LWC CB JMJ FN DS MJW TCQ RHG. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: MKG JL ADR JK OL AN MIN DATC JBB ACM SCR SM SCR TL JM AART LWC CB JMJ FN DS MJW TCQ RHG. Enrolled patients: FN JK DS SJR.