About the Authors

Megan Hall, Lucy C. Chappell, Bethany L. Parnell, Paul T. Seed, Susan Bewley
Women's Health Academic Centre, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

SB has received charitable grant funding to study violence in pregnancy (Economic and Social Research Council, Guys & St Thomas' Charitable Foundation, Friends of Guys Charity) and received a fee (£900) for expert obstetric advisory work from Marie Stopes International. LCC is a Freelance Associate Editor for PLOS Medicine. MH, BLP, and PTS declare no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SB MH PTS LC. Performed the experiments: MH BP LC PTS SB. Analyzed the data: MH BP LC PTS SB. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: MH LC SB. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: MH LC BP PTS SB. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MH LC BP PTS SB. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: MH LC BP PTS SB.