About the Authors

Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies
Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Matthias Egger, Thomas Gsponer, Olivia Keiser
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

James Ndirangu
Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Somkhele, South Africa

Sam Phiri
Lighthouse Trust Clinic, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi

Sam Phiri
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Harry Moultrie
Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto, South Africa

Harry Moultrie
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Karl Technau
Empilweni Service and Research Unit, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital and University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Vivian Cox
Médecins Sans Frontières South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa

Vivian Cox
Khayelitsha ART Programme, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa

Janet Giddy
Sinikithemba Clinic, McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa

Cleophas Chimbetete
Newlands Clinic, Harare, Zimbabwe

Robin Wood
Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Cape Town, South Africa

Robin Wood
Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Carolyn Bolton Moore
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Carolyn Bolton Moore
Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Helena Rabie
Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Brian Eley
School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Lulu Muhe, Martina Penazzato
Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Martina Penazzato
Clinical Trial Unit, Medical Research Council, London, United Kingdom

Shaffiq Essajee
Clinton Health Access Initiative, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

LM, a WHO staff member, and MP and SE, WHO consultants, have been involved in the 2013 WHO Guidelines development process. They were involved in designing this study and writing the manuscript. MS and MAD received funding from WHO to support the data analysis. However, the opinions expressed in the manuscript are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views or policies of WHO.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MS MAD ME TG OK TG LM MP SE. Performed the experiments: JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW CBM BE HR. Analyzed the data: MS MAD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MS TG. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: MS MAD. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: MS ME JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW TG CBM HR BE LM MP SE OK MAD. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MS ME JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW TG CBM HR BE LM MP SE OK MAD. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: MS ME JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW TG CBM HR BE LM MP SE OK MAD. Enrolled patients: JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW CBM HR BE.