About the Authors

Kathrin M. Cresswell
The School of Health in Social Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Sukhmeet S. Panesar, Sarah A. Salvilla, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Aziz Sheikh
Centre for Population Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Andrew Carson-Stevens
Cochrane Institute of Primary Care & Public Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Itziar Larizgoitia
WHO, Geneva, Switzerland

Liam J. Donaldson
Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

David Bates, Aziz Sheikh
Division of General Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

David Bates, Aziz Sheikh
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

David Bates
Department of Health Policy and Management, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author

aziz.sheikh@ed.ac.uk

Competing Interests

AS is a member of the Editorial Board of PLOS Medicine. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Analyzed the data: KMC SSP SAS AC-S. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: KMC AS. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SSP SAS AC-S IL LJD DB WHOSPCEWG. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: KMC SSP SAS AC-S IL LJD DB AS. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: KMC SSP SAS AC-S IL LJD DB AS WHOSPCEWG. KMC and SSP led the drafting of the protocol, which received critical input from SAS and AC-S.