About the Authors

Valerie C. Henderson

Affiliation Studies of Translation, Ethics and Medicine (STREAM) Group, Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Jonathan Kimmelman

jonathan.kimmelman@mcgill.ca

Affiliation Studies of Translation, Ethics and Medicine (STREAM) Group, Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Dean Fergusson

Affiliations Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Jeremy M. Grimshaw

Affiliations Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Dan G. Hackam

Affiliation Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Competing Interests

JMG holds a Canada Research Chair in Health Knowledge Transfer and Uptake. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JK. Performed the experiments: VCH JK. Analyzed the data: VCH JK DF JMG DGH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: JK. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: VCH JK DF JMG DGH. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: VCH JK DF JMG DGH. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: VCH JK DF JMG DGH.