About the Authors

Frédéric B. Piel, Sunetra Gupta
Evolutionary Ecology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Frédéric B. Piel, Simon I. Hay
Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Frédéric B. Piel, Thomas N. Williams
Global Network for Sickle Cell Disease, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

David J. Weatherall
Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Thomas N. Williams
Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya

Thomas N. Williams
Department of Medicine, Imperial College, St Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

fred.piel@zoo.ox.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FBP. Performed the experiments: FBP. Analyzed the data: FBP TNW. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: FBP. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: FBP SIH SG DJW TNW. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: FBP SIH SG DJW TNW. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: FBP SIH SG DJW TNW.