About the Authors

Frédéric B. Piel

fred.piel@zoo.ox.ac.uk

Affiliations Evolutionary Ecology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Global Network for Sickle Cell Disease, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Simon I. Hay

Affiliation Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Sunetra Gupta

Affiliation Evolutionary Ecology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

David J. Weatherall

Affiliation Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Thomas N. Williams

Affiliations Global Network for Sickle Cell Disease, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi, Kenya, Department of Medicine, Imperial College, St Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FBP. Performed the experiments: FBP. Analyzed the data: FBP TNW. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: FBP. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: FBP SIH SG DJW TNW. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: FBP SIH SG DJW TNW. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: FBP SIH SG DJW TNW.