About the Authors

Tove Fall, Sara Hägg, Erik Ingelsson
Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Tove Fall, Sara Hägg, Alexander Ploner, Nancy L. Pedersen, Erik Ingelsson
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Reedik Mägi, Momoko Horikoshi, Neil Robertson, Cecilia Lindgren, Nigel W. Rayner, Mark I. McCarthy, Erik Ingelsson, Inga Prokopenko
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Reedik Mägi, Krista Fischer, Mart Kals, Tõnu Esko, Markus Perola, Andres Metspalu
Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Momoko Horikoshi, Neil Robertson, Nigel W. Rayner, Mark I. McCarthy, Inga Prokopenko
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Antti-Pekka Sarin, Huei-yi Shen, Johannes Kettunen, Jaakko Kaprio, Leif Groop, Samuli Ripatti
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Gudmar Thorleifsson, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Hilma Holm, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson
deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland

Claes Ladenvall, Valeriya Lyssenko, Marju Orho-Melander, Leif Groop
Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden

Maris Kuningas, Abbas Dehghan, Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn, M. Arfan Ikram, Oscar H. Franco, Jacqueline Witteman, Albert Hofman
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Harmen H. M. Draisma, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I. Boomsma, Eco J. C. de Geus
Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Harmen H. M. Draisma, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Jan H. Smit, Gonneke Willemsen, Brenda W. J. H. Penninx, Dorret I. Boomsma, Eco J. C. de Geus
The EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Janina S. Ried, Christian Gieger
Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Natalie R. van Zuydam, Louise A. Donnelly, Alexander S. F. Doney, Colin Neil Alexander Palmer, Andrew D. Morris
Medical Research Institute, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Ville Huikari, Marika Kaakinen, Anja Taanila, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Massimo Mangino, Kerrin S. Small, Christopher J. Hammond, Tim D. Spector
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, United Kingdom

Emily Sonestedt
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases Genetic Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Beben Benyamin, Nicholas G. Martin, Grant W. Montgomery, John B. Whitfield
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Australia

Beben Benyamin
Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia

Christopher P. Nelson, Peter S. Braund, Nilesh J. Samani
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Christopher P. Nelson, Nilesh J. Samani
National Institute for Health Research, Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom

Natalia V. Rivera
IRCSS Multimedica, Milan, Italy

Natalia V. Rivera
Institute of Genetics and Biomedical Research, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan, Italy

Natalia V. Rivera, Najaf Amin, Aaron Isaacs, Lennart C. Karssen, Sara M. Willems, Cornelia M. van Duijn
Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Kati Kristiansson, Aki S. Havulinna, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Johannes Kettunen, Kari Kuulasmaa, Tiina Laatikainen, Satu Männistö, Markus Perola, Jarmo Virtamo, Veikko Salomaa, Samuli Ripatti
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Huei-yi Shen
Public Health Genomics Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Abbas Dehghan, Oscar H. Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jacqueline Witteman, Albert Hofman
Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Ageing, Netherlands Genomics Initiative, Leiden, The Netherlands

Marika Kaakinen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Markku J. Savolainen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Renée F. A. G. de Bruijn, M. Arfan Ikram
Department of Neurology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

M. Arfan Ikram
Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Anthony J. Balmforth, Alistair S. Hall
Division of Epidemiology, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Angela Döring, H.-Erich Wichmann
Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Angela Döring, Annette Peters
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Paul Elliott
MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Anneli Pouta
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Kauko Heikkilä, Jaakko Kaprio
Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Karl-Heinz Herzig
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Karl-Heinz Herzig
Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

Elina Hyppönen, Chris Power
Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Medical Research Council Centre for the Epidemiology of Child Health, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

Thomas Illig
Hannover Unified Biobank, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany

Thomas Illig
Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Bo Isomaa
Department of Social Services and Health Care, Jakobstad, Finland

Bo Isomaa, TiinaMaija Tuomi
Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland

Wolfgang Koenig
Department of Internal Medicine II–Cardiology, University of Ulm Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

Jaana Laitinen
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland

Valeriya Lyssenko
Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark

Esa Läärä
Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Nigel W. Rayner, Samuli Ripatti
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom

Anneli Pouta, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Children, Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

Wolfgang Rathmann
Institute of Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Düsseldorf University, Düsseldorf, Germany

Fernando Rivadeneira, Eric J. G. Sijbrands, Andre G. Uitterlinden
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Aimo Ruokonen
Institute of Diagnostics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Markku J. Savolainen
Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Jan H. Smit, Dorret I. Boomsma, Eco J. C. de Geus
Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Jan H. Smit, Brenda W. J. H. Penninx
Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Ann-Christine Syvänen
Molecular Medicine and Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Martin D. Tobin
Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Alun Evans
Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland

Jean Ferrières
Department of Cardiology, Toulouse University School of Medicine, Rangueil Hospital, Toulouse, France

Frank Kee
Centre of Excellence for Public Health Northern Ireland, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland

David-Alexandre Tregouet
Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, INSERM UMR S937, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France

Dominique Arveiler
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France

Philippe Amouyel
Institut Pasteur de Lille, INSERM U744, Université Lille Nord de France, Lille, France

Marco M. Ferrario
Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Research Centre, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

Paolo Brambilla
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy

Andrew C. Heath, Pamela A. F. Madden
Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Antti Jula
Population Studies Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland

Paul Knekt
Department of Health, Functional Capacity and Welfare, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Ben Oostra
Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Cornelia M. van Duijn
Netherlands Genomic Initiative, Leiden, The Netherlands

Cornelia M. van Duijn
Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands

George Davey Smith
MRC Centre for Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Jaakko Kaprio
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Annette Peters
Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany

H.-Erich Wichmann
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany

H.-Erich Wichmann
Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany

TiinaMaija Tuomi
Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

Lars Lind
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Erkki Vartiainen
Division of Welfare and Health Promotion, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland

Mark I. McCarthy
Oxford National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Inga Prokopenko
Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

TF has received honoraria by MSD for lecturing. GT, SG, VSt, UT, and KS are employees of deCODE Genetics/Amgen, a biotechnology company. OHF is the recipient of a grant from Pfizer Nutrition to establish a new center of ageing research: ErasmusAGE. KH received funding via the Finnish Academy (grant number 129418). JK holds grants from the EU FP7 (funding the present research and other projects), US NIH, the Academy of Finland, and several Finnish Foundations. JK consulted for Pfizer Inc. in 2012 on nicotine dependence. LG, GDS, and MIM are members of the Editorial Board of PLOS Medicine. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NLP MIM EI IP. Analyzed the data: Meta-analyses: TF SH RM APl KF. Cohort-specific analyses: MH (DIL, WTCCCContr) APS (FTC, FINTWIN, FR, H2000) GT (deCODE) CLa (DGI, MPP, PPP) MKal (EGCUT) MKu (RS) HHMD (NTR) JSR (KORA) NRvZ (GODARTS) VH (NFBC) MM (TwinsUK) ES (MDC-CV) BB (QIMR-AUSTWIN) CPN (GRAPHIC, WTCCCCase) NVR (ERF) KKr (MORGAM) TF (PIVUS, GOSH, TWINGENE, ULSAM) ASHav (FR, H2000) ADe (RS) LAD (GODARTS) MKaa (NFBC) MLN (MORGAM) NR (DIL) RDEB (RS, ERF) AMI (RS, ERF). Statistical insights: APl KF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: Administrative, technical, or material support: PA DA AJB DIB PB PSB GDS EJCD ASFD ADö PE TE AE MMF JF KF OHF CG SG LG ASHal CJH ALH ACH KH AH KHH HH JJH EH TI EI BI AJ MRJ MKal JKe FK JKe PK WK KKu TL JL LL CLi VL EL PAFM NGM MIM AM GWM ADM SM BO MOM CNAP NLP BWJHP MP APe APo CP IP WR NWR SR FR AR VSa NJS MS HS EJGS KSS JHS TDS KS VSt ACS AT UT MDT DAT TMT AGU CMvD EV JBW HW SMW GW JV JW. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: TF SH RM APl KF NLP MIM EI IP. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: TF SH RM APl KF MH APS GT CLa MKal MKu HHMD JSR NRvZ VH MM ES BB CPN NVR KKr HS ASHav ADe LAD MKaa MLN NR RDEB AMI NA AJB PSB ASFD ADö PE TE OHF SG ALH KH KHH HH JJH EH TI AI BI LK JKe WK KKu TL JL CLi VL EL NWR SM APo WR FR AR MS EJGS KSS JHS VSt ACS AT MDT AGU SMW GW JW MP AE JF JV FK DAT DA PA MMF PB ASHal ACH PAFM NGM GWM JBW AJ PK BO CMvD BWJHP GDS JKe NJS CG APe HW DIB EJCD TMT CP CJH TDS LL MOM CNAP ADM LG MRJ VSa EV AH SR AM UT KS NLP MIM EI IP. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: TF SH RM APl KF MH APS GT CLa MKal MKu HHMD JSR NRvZ VH MM ES BB CPN NVR KKr HS ASHav ADe LAD MKaa MLN NR RDEB AMI NA AJB PSB ASFD ADö PE TE OHF SG ALH KH KHH HH JJH EH TI AI BI LK JKe WK KKu TL JL CLi VL EL NWR SM APo WR FR AR MS EJGS KSS JHS VSt ACS AT MDT AGU SMW GW JW MP AE JF JV FK DAT DA PA MMF PB ASHal ACH PAFM NGM GWM JBW AJ PK BO CMvD BWJHP GDS JKe NJS CG APe HW DIB EJCD TMT CP CJH TDS LL MOM CNAP ADM LG MRJ VSa EV AH SR AM UT KS NLP MIM EI IP. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: TF SH RM APl KF MH APS GT CLa MKal MKu HHMD JSR NRvZ VH MM ES BB CPN NVR KKr HS ASHav ADe LAD MKaa MLN NR RDEB AMI NA AJB PSB ASFD ADö PE TE OHF SG ALH KH KHH HH JJH EH TI AI BI LK JKe WK KKu TL JL CLi VL EL NWR SM APo WR FR AR MS EJGS KSS JHS VSt ACS AT MDT AGU SMW GW JW MP AE JF JV FK DAT DA PA MMF PB ASHal ACH PAFM NGM GWM JBW AJ PK BO CMvD BWJHP GDS JKe NJS CG APe HW DIB EJCD TMT CP CJH TDS LL MOM CNAP ADM LG MRJ VSa EV AH SR AM UT KS NLP MIM EI IP. Enrolled patients: Acquisition of data: PA DA AJB DIB PB PSB GDS EJCD ASFD ADö PE TE AE MMF JF KF OHF CG SG LG ASHal CJH ALH ACH KH AH KHH HH JJH EH TI EI BI AJ MRJ MKal JKe FK JKe PK WK KKu TL JL LL CLi VL EL PAFM NGM MIM AM GWM ADM SM BO MOM CNAP NLP BWJHP MP APe APo CP IP WR NWR SR FR AR VSa NJS MS EJGS KSS JHS TDS KS VSt ACS AT UT MDT DAT TMT AGU CMvD EV JBW HW SMW GW JV JW. Obtained funding: PA DA AJB DIB PB PSB GDS EJCD ASFD ADö PE TE AE MMF JF KF OHF CG SG LG ASHal CJH ALH ACH KH AH KHH HH JJH EH TI EI BI AJ MRJ MKal JKe FK JKe PK WK KKu TL JL LL CLi VL EL PAFM NGM MIM AM GWM ADM SM BO MOM CNAP NLP BWJHP MP APe APo CP IP WR NWR SR FR AR VSa NJS MS EJGS KSS JHS TDS KS VSt ACS AT UT MDT DAT TMT AGU CMvD EV JBW HW SMW GW JV JW. Statistical analysis: TF SH RM APl KF NLP MIM EI IP MH APS GT CLa MKal MKu HHMD JSR NRvZ VH MM ES BB CPN NVR KKr ASHav ADe LAD MKaa MLN. Access to all of the data in the study and responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis: TF SH RM APl KF NLP MIM EI IP.