About the Authors

Collin F. Payne
Graduate Group in Demography, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Collin F. Payne, Hans-Peter Kohler
Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

James Mkandawire
Invest in Knowledge, Zomba, Malawi

Hans-Peter Kohler
Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

collinp@sas.upenn.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CFP HPK. Performed the experiments: CFP. Analyzed the data: CFP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JM HPK. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: CFP. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: CFP JM HPK. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: CFP JM HPK. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: CFP JM HPK.