About the Authors

Samuel J. Clark

Affiliations Department of Sociology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America, MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana

Kathleen Kahn

Affiliations Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America, MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana, Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Brian Houle

brian.houle@colorado.edu

Affiliations Department of Sociology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America

Adriane Arteche

Affiliation The Section of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Mark A. Collinson

Affiliations MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana, Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Stephen M. Tollman

Affiliations Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America, MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana, Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Alan Stein

Affiliations MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, The Section of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The content of the work presented here is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SC AS. Analyzed the data: SC BH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: AS AA. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SC KK BH AA MC ST AS. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SC KK BH AA MC ST AS. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: SC KK BH AA MC ST AS.