About the Authors

Karani S. Vimaleswaran, Diane J. Berry, Chris Power, Elina Hyppönen
Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics and MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

Chen Lu, Josée Dupuis
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Emmi Tikkanen
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Emmi Tikkanen, Veikko Salomaa, Antti Jula
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Stefan Pilz
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Graz, Austria

Stefan Pilz
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Linda T. Hiraki, Peter Kraft
Program in Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jason D. Cooper
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Zari Dastani
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Rui Li, J. Brent Richards
Departments of Medicine, Human Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Denise K. Houston, Stephen B. Kritchevsky
Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Andrew R. Wood, Timothy M. Frayling
Genetics of Complex Traits, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

Karl Michaëlsson, Liisa Byberg
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Liesbeth Vandenput, Mattias Lorentzon, Claes Ohlsson
Center for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Lina Zgaga, Harry Campbell, Evropi Theodoratou
Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Lina Zgaga
Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, Medical School University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong, Braxton D. Mitchell, Elizabeth A. Streeten
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Mark I. McCarthy
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom

Mark I. McCarthy
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Mark I. McCarthy
Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom

Josée Dupuis
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America

Marika Kaakinen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Marcus E. Kleber
LURIC Study non-profit LLC, Freiburg, Germany and Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

Karen Jameson, Nigel Arden, Cyrus Cooper
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

Nigel Arden
NIHR Musculoskeletal BRU, Botnar Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

Olli Raitakari
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Jorma Viikari
Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Kurt K. Lohman
Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Luigi Ferrucci
Clinical Research Branch, Harbor Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Håkan Melhus, Lars Lind
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Erik Ingelsson
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Malcolm Dunlop
Colon Cancer Genetics Group and Academic Coloproctology, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Malcolm Dunlop
MRC Human Genetics Unit Western General Hospital Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Karl-Heinz Herzig
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Karl-Heinz Herzig
Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

Anneli Pouta
Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Anna-Liisa Hartikainen
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Public Health and General Practice, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Nicholas J. Wareham, Ruth J. F. Loos
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Timothy D. Spector, J. Brent Richards
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Terho Lehtimäki
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere University Hospital and University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

Willem H. Ouwehand
Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Willem H. Ouwehand
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Willem H. Ouwehand
NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Winfried März
Synlab Academy, Mannheim, Germany

Winfried März
Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

Thomas J. Wang
Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Children, Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

John C. Whittaker
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

John C. Whittaker
Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, United Kingdom

Aroon D. Hingorani
Genetic Epidemiology Group, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Aroon D. Hingorani
Division of Medicine, Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

e.hypponen@ucl.ac.uk

Competing Interests

LTH is currently supported by a Canada Institute of Research (CIHR) Fellowship award. CC has received honoraria and consulting fees from Amgen, Eli Lilly, Medtronic, Merck, Novartis, and Servier. WM is an employee of synlab laboratory services GmbH. Synlab offers vitamin D testing. TJW is on the scientific advisory board for Diasorin Inc. and has received research support from them. JCW is 90% employed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) whilst maintaining a 10% appointment at London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), and holds GSK shares. All other authors declare that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KSV DJB MM OR JV BDM EAM NJW TM TL WHO CC TJW MRJ JCW ADH EH. Performed the experiments: KSV DJB CL ET SP LTH JDC KHL ZD RL ARW KM LZ LMY JD MCK KJ VS BDM EAS DKH TL PK CC RJFL JCW ADH EH. Analyzed the data: KSV DJB CL ET SP LTH JDC KHL ZD RL ARW KM LZ LMY JD MCK KJ VS BDM EAS DKH TL PK CC RJFL JCW ADH EH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KSV DJB SP LTH KM LMY MM JD MK NA OR JV SBK HM EI LB LL VS BDM KH EAS DKH TL PK CC WM RJFL CP MRJ JCW ADH EH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: KSV DJB EH. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: KSV DJB EH. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: KSV DJB CL ET SP LTH JDC ZD RL DKH ARW KM LV LZ LMY MM JD MK MEK KJ NA OR JV KKL LF HM EI LB LL ML VS HC MD BDM KHH AP ALH EAS ET AJ NJW CO TMF SBK TDS JBR TL WHO PK CC WM CP RJFL TJW MRJ JCW ADH EH. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: KSV DJB CL ET SP LTH JDC ZD RL DKH ARW KM LV LZ LMY MM JD MK MEK KJ NA OR JV KKL LF HM EI LB LL ML VS HC MD BDM KHH AP ALH EAS ET AJ NJW CO TMF SBK TDS JBR TL WHO PK CC WM CP RJFL TJW MRJ JCW ADH EH. Obtained the data: KSV DJB SP LTH ZD RL KM LV MM MK MCK KJ NA OR JV SBK LF HM EI LB LL ML VS HC MD BDM AP AH ET NJW CO TMF DKH JBR TL WHO PK CC WM CP ADH MRJ EH. Provided the administrative, technical, or material support: KSV DJB KM MK OR JV SBK LF HM EI LL VS TMF DKH TL CP EH. Supervised the study: JD OR JV SBK HC MD BDM EAS AJ ET TS TMF JBR TL TJW MRJ JCW ADH EH.