About the Authors

Aaron S. Kesselheim, Bo Wang, Jerry Avorn
Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

David M. Studdert
Schools of Law and Population Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared the following competing interests: ASK was co-chair of a conference entitled Conflicts of Interest in the Practice of Medicine: A National Symposium sponsored by the American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, the Highmark Foundation, the Jewish Healthcare Foundation, and the University of Pittsburgh; ASK was paid a small honorarium for his effort. In 2008-2009, ASK served as an expert witness for the state of Texas in a case against Merck alleging inappropriate promotion of rofecoxib (Vioxx), and ASK served as an expert witness for a class of individual plaintiffs in a case against AstraZeneca alleging inappropriate promotion of esomeprazole (Nexium). All other authors have declared no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ASK DMS JA. Performed the experiments: ASK BW. Analyzed the data: ASK BW. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: ASK BW. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: ASK BW DMS JA. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: ASK BW DMS JA. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: ASK BW DMS JA.