About the Authors

Iryna Schlackow

Affiliation NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

A. Sarah Walker

Affiliations NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, United Kingdom

Kate Dingle

Affiliation NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

David Griffiths

Affiliation NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Sarah Oakley

Affiliation NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

John Finney

Affiliation NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Ali Vaughan

Affiliation NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Martin J. Gill

Affiliation University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom

Derrick W. Crook

Affiliation NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Tim E. A. Peto

Affiliation NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

David H. Wyllie

david.wyllie@ndm.ox.ac.uk

Affiliations NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, Health Protection Agency, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

IS was supported by NIHR grant RP-DG-1108-10125, and DW was supported in part by the Health Protection Agency during the work described. We declare no other financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years. IS, DW, TP, DC and ASW have applied for a patent related to the techniques described. TP has been a scientific advisor to Optimer Pharmaceuticals.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DHW ASW. Performed the experiments: DHW ASW IS JF AV DG SO KD MG. Analyzed the data: IS ASW DHW MG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JF AV DG SO KD. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: DHW IS. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: DHW TP DW IS JF MG DC. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: DHW ASW IS AV DG SO KD JF MG TP DC. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: DHW ASW IS AV DG SO KD JF MG TP DC.