About the Authors

Shahin Lockman
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Shahin Lockman, Michael Hughes, Yu Zheng
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Shahin Lockman, Aida Asmelash
Botswana Harvard School of Public Health AIDS Initiative Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana

Fred Sawe, Douglas Shaffer
Kenya Medical Research Institute/Walter Reed Project and US Military HIV Research Program, Kericho, Kenya

James McIntyre
Anova Health Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa

Tsungai Chipato
University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

Mohammed Rassool
University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Sylvester Kimaiyo
Moi University Faculty of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya

Mina Hosseinipour
Kamuzu Central Hospital, University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe, Malawi

Lerato Mohapi
Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa

Francis Ssali
Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda

Margret Chibowa
University of Alabama at Birmingham Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka

Farida Amod
University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Elias Halvas, John Mellors
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Evelyn Hogg
Social & Scientific Systems, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Beverly Alston-Smith
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Laura Smith
Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America

Robert Schooley
University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America

Judith Currier
University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

slockman@hsph.harvard.edu

Competing Interests

M. Hughes reports receiving fees as a member of the data and safety monitoring boards for Boehringer Ingelheim, Medicines Development, Pfizer, Tibotec, and Virionyx and the receipt by his department of financial support from Schering-Plough and Merck for an annual educational workshop; J. McIntyre, receiving financial support from the Abbott Speakers Bureau; M. Hosseinipour, receiving financial support from Abbott Virology for educational presentations (M. Hosseinipour has given an educational lecture at the 2009 IAS conference and the 2010 INTEREST conference for Abbott virology on the topic of antiretroviral resistance in Malawi); L. Mohapi, receiving reimbursement for travel expenses from Pfizer Laboratories (L. Mohapi received travel, accommodation and registration assistance for the XVII AIDS Conference in Mexico City, August 2008, from Pfizer); J. Mellors, serving on the scientific advisory board for Gilead Sciences, receiving consulting fees from Merck, Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Chimerix, RFS Pharmaceuticals, Panacos Pharmaceuticals, and Abbott Laboratories, receiving grant support from Merck, having stock options in RFS Pharmaceuticals, and receiving reimbursement for travel expenses from Gilead Sciences, Merck, Chimerix, Idenix Pharmaceuticals, RFS Pharmaceuticals, and Panacos Pharmaceuticals; R. Schooley, receiving consulting fees from Glaxo-SmithKline and Abbott Laboratories and reimbursement for travel expenses from Abbott Laboratories (and serves on the scientific advisory board for Gilead Sciences); and J. Currier, receiving consulting fees from GlaxoSmithKline and grant support from Merck and Tibotec. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SL MHu FSa JMc TC AA DS MHo LM FA EHa BAS RS JMe JC. Analyzed the data: MHu EZ. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: SL. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SL MHu EHo JMe JC. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SL MHu FSa EZ JMc TC AA MR SK DS MHo LM FSs MC FA EHo EHa LS BAS RS JMe JC. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: SL MHu FSa EZ JMc TC AA MR SK DS MHo LM FSs MC FA EHo EHa LS BAS RS JMe JC. Enrolled patients: FSa JMc TC AA MR SK DS MHo LM FSs FA. Data manager, case report forms: LS.