About the Authors

Alexander C. Tsai
Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Alexander C. Tsai
Center for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Mohammed A. Eisa, Sondra S. Crosby, Susannah Sirkin, Michele Heisler, Vincent Iacopino
Physicians for Human Rights, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Mohammed A. Eisa
Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sondra S. Crosby
Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sondra S. Crosby
Department of Health Law, Bioethics, and Human Rights, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Michele Heisler
Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Michele Heisler
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Michele Heisler
Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Jennifer Leaning
Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Vincent Iacopino
Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

Vincent Iacopino
Human Rights Center, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

atsai@hsph.harvard.edu

Competing Interests

Six of the study authors are currently affiliated with organizations that advocate for the prevention of mass atrocities, protection of internationally guaranteed rights, and/or prosecution of those who violate human rights: the Amel Centre for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture (MAE), Physicians for Human Rights (MAE, SC, SS, MH, VI), the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative (MAE), the Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights at the Harvard School of Public Health (JL), and the Human Rights Center at the University of California at Berkeley (VI). From 2004 to 2009, one of the study authors (MAE) served as medical director of the clinic from which the data were obtained. All authors have declared that no financial conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ACT MAE SSC SS MH JL VI. Analyzed the data: ACT. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: ACT. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: ACT MAE SSC VI. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: ACT MAE SSC SS MH JL VI. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: ACT MAE SSC SS MH JL VI. Obtained funding for the study: MAE SS JL. Acquired the data: ACT MAE SS VI. Contributed to interpretation of the data: ACT MAE SSC SS MH JL VI.