About the Authors

Simon Lewin

simon.lewin@nokc.no

Affiliation Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway, and Health Systems Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa

Xavier Bosch-Capblanch

Affiliation Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Sandy Oliver

Affiliation EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, London, United Kingdom

Elie A. Akl

Affiliation Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of America, and Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Gunn E. Vist

Affiliation Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway

John N. Lavis

Affiliation McMaster Health Forum, Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Department of Political Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Davina Ghersi

Affiliation Department of Research Policy and Cooperation, Information, Evidence and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

John-Arne Røttingen

Affiliation Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway

Peter Steinmann

Affiliation Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Metin Gulmezoglu

Affiliation UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization, Switzerland

Peter Tugwell

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Institute of Population Health, and Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada

Fadi El-Jardali

Affiliation Department of Health Policy and Management, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon, and McMaster Health Forum, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Andy Haines

Affiliation Departments of Social and Environmental Health Research and of Nutrition and Public Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services received funds from the WHO for the contributions of DD, PS, LB, SL, and XBC to developing a Handbook to produce health systems guidance, and some of this work is reported in this article. DG is a member of the PLoS Medicine Editorial Board. EAA and GEV are members of the GRADE Working Group. All other authors declare no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SL XBC SO EAA GEV JL DG JAR PS MG PT FEJ AH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: SL. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: XBC SO EAA GEV JL DG JAR PS MG PT FEJ AH. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SL XBC SO EAA GEV JL DG JAR PS MG PT FEJ AH. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: SL XBC SO EAA GEV JL DG JAR PS MG PT FEJ AH.