About the Authors

Tuomas O. Kilpeläinen, Soren Brage, Stephen J. Sharp, Luigi Palla, Robert A. Scott, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ulf Ekelund, Ruth J. F. Loos
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Lu Qi, Frida Renström, Paul W. Franks
Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Emily Sonestedt, Frida Renström, Dmitry Shungin, Leif C. Groop, Marju Orho-Melander, Paul W. Franks
Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden

Ellen Demerath, Pamela L. Lutsey
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

Tariq Ahmad
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Samia Mora, Daniel Chasman, Paul Ridker
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Marika Kaakinen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Camilla Helene Sandholt, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen
Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark

Christina Holzapfel, Thomas Illig
Unit for Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Christina Holzapfel
Else Kroener-Fresenius-Centre for Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, University Hospital “Klinikum rechts der Isar,” Munich, Germany

Christine S. Autenrieth
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Elina Hyppönen, Chris Power
Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

Stéphane Cauchi, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Philippe Froguel
CNRS-UMR-8090, Department of Genomics and Molecular Physiology of Metabolic Diseases, Institute of Biology of Lille, Lille, France

Meian He, Frank B. Hu
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Zoltan Kutalik, Sven Bergmann
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Meena Kumari
Genetic Epidemiology Group, Department of Epidemiology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Alena Stančáková, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso
Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

Karina Meidtner, Heiner Boeing
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Nuthetal, Germany

Beverley Balkau
INSERM, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Epidemiology of diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease over the lifecourse and determinants of early nutrition, Villejuif, France

Beverley Balkau
University Paris Sud 11, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France

Jonathan T. Tan
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Massimo Mangino, Timothy D. Spector
King’s College London, London, United Kingdom

Nicholas J. Timpson, Debbie A. Lawlor
Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Yiqing Song
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

M. Carola Zillikens, André G. Uitterlinden
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

M. Carola Zillikens, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Albert Hofman, André G. Uitterlinden
Netherlands Genomics Initiative–sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging, Leiden, The Netherlands

Kathleen A. Jablonski
The Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

Melissa E. Garcia
National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Stefan Johansson
Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

Stefan Johansson, Pål R. Njølstad
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham, Heather M. Stringham, Michael Boehnke
Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Ying Wu, Karen L. Mohlke
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Jana V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
Molecular Genetics Section, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Centre Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

N. Charlotte Onland-Moret
Complex Genetics Section, Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

N. Charlotte Onland-Moret
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Esther Zimmermann, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

Esther Zimmermann, Oluf Pedersen
Institute of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Natalia V. Rivera, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Albert Hofman, André G. Uitterlinden
Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Toshiko Tanaka
Medstar Research Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Toshiko Tanaka, Jeffery Metter, Luigi Ferrucci
Longitudinal Study Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Günther Silbernagel, Andreas Fritsche
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Nephrology, Vascular Disease, and Clinical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Stavroula Kanoni, George V. Dedoussis
Department of Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Mary F. Feitosa, Ingrid B. Borecki
Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Soren Snitker
University of Maryland School of Medicine, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

Jonatan R. Ruiz
Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

Jonatan R. Ruiz
Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

Maria Teresa Martinez Larrad, Manuel Serrano Rios
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain

Mustafa Atalay, Timo A. Lakka
Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland

Maarit Hakanen, Olli Raitakari
The Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Anders Grøntved
Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

Göran Hallmans
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine Section for Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

John-Olov Jansson
Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Mika Kähönen
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland

John J. Nolan
Steno Diabetes Centre, Gentofte, Denmark

Oluf Pedersen
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark

Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen
Marie Krogh Center for Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Louis Pérusse
Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada

Frida Renström, Dmitry Shungin, Paul W. Franks
Genetic Epidemiology and Clinical Research Group, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden

Dmitry Shungin
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Ulla Sovio
Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Tuija H. Tammelin
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland

Tuija H. Tammelin
LIKES Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland

Tapani Rönnemaa
Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Matti Uusitupa
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland

Matti Uusitupa
Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

Claude Bouchard
Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America

Aline Meirhaeghe
INSERM, U744, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Université Lille Nord de France, Université Lille 2, Lille, France

Mao Fu
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Mark Walker
Institute of Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom

Claes Ohlsson
Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Stefania Bandinelli
Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze, Florence, Italy

Cornelia M. van Duijn
Netherlands Genomics Initiative, Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands

Shah Ebrahim
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Vilmundur Gudnason
Icelandic Heart Association, Heart Preventive Clinic and Research Institute, Kopavogur, Iceland

Vilmundur Gudnason
University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

Tamara B. Harris
Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Jaakko Tuomilehto
Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Jaakko Tuomilehto
South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland

Jaakko Tuomilehto
Department of Clinical and Preventive Medicine, Danube-University Krems, Krems, Austria

Terho Lehtimäki
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland

Olli Raitakari
Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Bo Isomaa
Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland

Bo Isomaa
Department of Social Services and Health Care, Jakobstad, Finland

Pål R. Njølstad
Department of Pediatrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

Jose C. Florez
Center for Human Genetic Research and Diabetes Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jose C. Florez
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jose C. Florez
Program for Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Simin Liu
Center for Metabolic Disease Prevention, School of Public Health and David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Andy Ness
School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

E. Shyong Tai
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Philippe Froguel
Centre and Department of Genomic Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Michael Marmot
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Kay-Tee Khaw
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Torben Hansen
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

Keri L. Monda
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Life Course and Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

JJN has, since January 2011, been employed at Steno Diabetes Centre, a legally independent clinical and research body, which is wholly owned by Novo Nordisk. In relation to his contribution to this manuscript (through the RISC study), all of this work pre-dates his appointment to his current position. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TOK LQ SBr SJS LPal RAS UE PWF RJFL. Analyzed the data: TOK ES ED TA SM MKaa CHS CH CSA EH SC MH ZK MKah AS KM BB JTT MM NJT YS MCZ KAJ MEG SJ JLBG YW JVVVO NCOM EZ NVR TT HMS GS SK MFF SS JRR JM MTML MA MH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: TOK LQ SBr SJS UE PWF RJFL. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: TOK LQ SBr SJS ES ED TA SM MKaa CHS CH CSA EH SC MH ZK MKu AS KM BB JTT MM NJT YS MCZ KAJ MEG SJ JLBG YW JVVVO NCOM EZ NVR TT HMS GS SK MFF SS JRR JM MTML MA MH NA CCP AG GH JOJ JK MKah PLL JJN LPal OP LPer FR RAS DS US THT TR TAL MU MSR LF CB AM MF MW IBB GVD AF CO MB SBa CMVD SE DAL VG TBH TIAS KLMoh AH AGU JT TL OR BI PRN JCF SL AN TDS EST PF HB ML MM SBe CP KTK DC PR TH KLMon TI MRJ NJW FBH LCG MOM UE PWF RJFL. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: TOK LQ SBr SJS ES ED TA SM MKaa CHS CH CSA EH SC MH ZK MKu AS KM BB JTT MM NJT YS MCZ KAJ MEG SJ JLBG YW JVVVO NCOM EZ NVR TT HMS GS SK MFF SS JRR JM MTML MA MH NA CCP AG GH JOJ JK MKah PLL JJN LPal OP LPer FR RAS DS US THT TR TAL MU MSR LF CB AM MF MW IBB GVD AF CO MB SBa CMVD SE DAL VG TBH TIAS KLMoh AH AGU JT TL OR BI PRN JCF SL AN TDS EST PF HB ML MM SBe CP KTK DC PR TH KLMon TI MRJ NJW FBH LCG MOM UE PWF RJFL. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: TOK LQ SBr SJS ES ED TA SM MKaa CHS CH CSA EH SC MH ZK MKu AS KM BB JTT MM NJT YS MCZ KAJ MEG SJ JLBG YW JVVVO NCOM EZ NVR TT HMS GS SK MFF SS JRR JM MTML MA MH NA CCP AG GH JOJ JK MKah PLL JJN LPal OP LPer FR RAS DS US THT TR TAL MU MSR LF CB AM MF MW IBB GVD AF CO MB SBa CMVD SE DAL VG TBH TIAS KLMoh AH AGU JT TL OR BI PRN JCF SL AN TDS EST PF HB ML MM SBe CP KTK DC PR TH KLMon TI MRJ NJW FBH LCG MOM UE PWF RJFL. Management and coordination of contributing cohorts: NA CCP AG GH JOJ JK MKu PLL JJN LPal OP LPer FR RAS DS US THT TR TAL MU MSR LF CB AM MF MW IBB GVD AF CO MB SBa CMVD SE DAL VG TBH TIAS KLMoh AH AGU JT TL OR BI PRN JCF SL AN TDS EST PF HB ML MM SBe CP KTK DC PR TH KLMon TI MRJ NJW FBH LCG MOM UE PWF RJFL.