About the Authors

Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Mohammed Ahmed Yassin, Greg Harper, Rachel Mary Anderson de Cuevas, Sally Jane Theobald, Brian Faragher, Stephen Bertel Squire
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Carl-Michael Nathanson, Jean Joly, Andrew Ramsay
United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva Switzerland

Najla Al-Sonboli, Nasher Al-Aghbari
Medical Faculty, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen

Lovett Lawson, Emmanuel Nnamdi Emenyonu, Juliana Olubunmi Onuoha
Zankli Medical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria

Isabel Arbide
Bushullo Major Health Centre, Awassa, Ethiopia

Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand
Tribhuvan University Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal

Amin Al-Absi
National Tuberculosis Institute, Sana'a, Yemen

Yared Merid, Melkamsew Aschalew
Southern Region Health Bureau, Awassa, Ethiopia

Mosis Ifenyi Okobi
Wuse General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

Abraham Aseffa
Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

Andrew Ramsay is employed by WHO/TDR, the institution administering the grants from USAID and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that funded this work. The other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: LEC NA-S LL MAY IA NA JBS ANA ENE YM MIO JOB MA AA GH RMA ST C-MN JJ BF SBS AR. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: LEC NA-S LL MAY IA NA JBS ANA ENE YM MIO JOB MA AA GH RMA ST C-MN JJ BF SBS AR. Enrolled patients: NA-S LL IA NA JBS ANA ENE MIO JOB. Conceived and designed the experiments: LEC MAY AR BF. Performed the experiments: NA-S LL IA NA JBS NAA ENE YM MIO JOB MA AA GH. Analyzed the data: LEC MAY AR BF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GH C-MN JJ. Wrote the paper: LEC MAY AR SBS RMA ST BF. Acted as field director: NA-S LL IA NAA JBS. Obtained national ethical approval: NA-S LL IA NAA JBS. Facilitated insertion of the study into the National Control Programme: AA MA LL JBS.