About the Authors

Brian D. Gushulak, Douglas W. MacPherson
Migration Health Consultants, Inc., Cheltenham, Ontario, Canada; Qualicum Beach, British Columbia, Canada

Douglas W. MacPherson
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

Brian Gushulak has retired from his position with the Canadian Federal Government and is engaged in freelance consulting and teaching, while Douglas MacPherson is currently on staff with WHO in Geneva and maintains a university position in Canada. Migration Health Consultants, Inc. provides program and policy development, research, teaching, and analytical support in the field of migration, population mobility, and health. The two team members have extensive experience in government, international agency, and academic health and migration environments and have participated in integrated responses to complex global health challenges at the domestic and international level. The opinions expressed in this paper reflect those of the authors only and not any institution to which they may or may have been affiliated.

Author Contributions

Wrote the first draft: BG. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: BG DWM. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: BG DWM. Agree with the manuscript's esults and conclusions: BG DWM.