About the Authors

Molly F. Franke

molly_franke@hms.harvard.edu

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Partners In Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

James M. Robins

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jules Mugabo

Affiliation Center for Treatment and Research on AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis and Other Epidemics (TRAC Plus), Rwanda Ministry of Health, Kigali, Rwanda

Felix Kaigamba

Affiliation Ruhengeri Hospital, Rwanda Ministry of Health, Ruhengeri, Rwanda

Lauren E. Cain

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Julia G. Fleming

Affiliation Partners In Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Megan B. Murray

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

Megan Murray is a PLoS Medicine Editorial Board member. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MF MM JR JM FK JF. Analyzed the data: MF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JR LC. Wrote the paper: MM JR LC JM FK JF. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MF JR JM FK LC JF MM. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: MF JR JM FK LC JF MM. Wrote the first draft: MF.