About the Authors

Nicola Low, Kurt Schmidlin, Matthias Egger, Marcel Zwahlen, Adriane Martin Hilber
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Matthew F. Chersich
Centre for Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Matthew F. Chersich, Marleen Temmerman
International Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Suzanna C. Francis, Richard J. Hayes, Joelle Brown, Nuala McGrath, Deborah Watson-Jones
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert
Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Jared M. Baeten
Departments of Global Health, Medicine, and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Joelle Brown
Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Hillbrow, South Africa

Rupert Kaul
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Nuala McGrath
Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Somkhele, South Africa

Charles Morrison
Clinical Sciences Department, FHI, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America

Landon Myer
Centre for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Landon Myer
Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Ariane van der Straten
Women's Global Health Imperative, RTI International, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author


Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: NL MFC KS ME SCF JHHMvdW RJH JMB JB SDM RK NM CM LM MT AvdS DWJ MZ AMH. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: NL MFC KS ME SCF JHHMvdW RJH JMB JB SDM RK NM CM LM MT AvdS DWJ MZ AMH. Designed the experiments/the study: NL MFC ME SCF RJH DWJ AMH. Analyzed the data: NL KS RJH AMH. Collected data/did experiments for the study: MFC JHHMvdW RJH JMB JB SDM RK NM CM LM MT AvdS DWJ AMH. Enrolled patients: JMB JB SDM RK NM CM LM DWJ. Wrote the first draft of the paper: NL. Contributed to the writing of the paper: ME SCF JHHMvdW RJH JMB JB RK NM CM LM MT AvdS DWJ MZ AMH. The contributions to the study of these authors was equivalent. Data management, deriving of study variables: MFC. Contributed data to the individual participant data analysis: SCF. Helped to develop the statistical models and reviewed analysis output: JHHMvdW. Contributed to data and analysis interpretation: JMB. Was the Principal Investigator on one of the component studies in the meta-analysis: CM. Advised on how to conduct the statistical analysis: MZ. Coordinated the colloboration between all included partners and was a PI on the project; contributed to the intrepreptation of results with the analytical team: AMH.