About the Authors

Alison H. Skalet

Affiliations Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Vicky Cevallos

Affiliation Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Berhan Ayele

Affiliation The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Teshome Gebre

Affiliation The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Zhaoxia Zhou

Affiliation Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

James H. Jorgensen

Affiliation University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

Mulat Zerihun

Affiliation The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Dereje Habte

Affiliation The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Yared Assefa

Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, University of Gondar, Ethiopia

Paul M. Emerson

Affiliation The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Bruce D. Gaynor

Affiliations Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Travis C. Porco

Affiliations Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Thomas M. Lietman

Affiliations Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Jeremy D. Keenan

jeremy.keenan@ucsf.edu

Affiliations Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

JHJ was an Advisory board member for BD Diagnostics; and has received research support from BD Diagnostics, bioMerieux, Merck and Pfizer.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: AHS VC BA TG ZZ JHJ MZ DH YA PME BDG TCP TML JDK. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: AHS VC BA TG ZZ JHJ MZ DH YA PME BDG TCP TML JDK. Designed the experiments/the study: TG ZZ DH TML. Analyzed the data: ZZ JHJ BDG TCP TML JDK. Collected data/did experiments for the study: AHS VC BA TG ZZ JHJ MZ DH YA BDG TML. Enrolled patients: BA. Wrote the first draft of the paper: AHS. Contributed to the writing of the paper: BA TG JHJ DH PME BDG TCP TML JDK. Provided oversight and administrative support: TG. Contributed to interpretation of findings: PME.