About the Authors

Chien-Chang Lee

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Emergency Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Nicole A. Middaugh

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Stephen R. C. Howie

Affiliation Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council (UK) Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia

Majid Ezzati

majid.ezzati@imperial.ac.uk

Affiliations Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom, MRC-HPA Center for Environment and Health, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: CCL NAM SRCH ME. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: CCL NAM SRCH ME. Designed the experiments/the study: CCL ME. Analyzed the data: CCL NAM SRCH. Collected data/did experiments for the study: CCL NAM. Wrote the first draft of the paper: CCL ME. Contributed to the writing of the paper: NAM SRCH. Developed research concept and oversaw research: ME.