About the Authors

Jamie Bartram

Affiliation Water Institute, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Sandy Cairncross

sandy.cairncross@lshtm.ac.uk

Affiliation London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingom

Competing Interests

SC leads a UK Department for International Development-funded research programme consortium for research in sanitation and hygiene.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: JB SC. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: JB SC. Wrote the first draft of the paper: JB. Contributed to the writing of the paper: JB SC.