About the Authors

Joel G. Ray

rayj@smh.toronto.on.ca

Affiliations Department of Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Health Policy Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Michael J. Schull

Affiliations Department of Health Policy Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine (Division of Emergency Medicine), Sunnybrook Sciences Centre, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Marcelo L. Urquia

Affiliation Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

John J. You

Affiliations Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Astrid Guttmann

Affiliations Department of Health Policy Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Marian J. Vermeulen

Affiliation Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: JGR MJS MLU JJY AG MJV. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: JGR MJS MLU JJY AG MJV. Designed the experiments/the study: JGR AG. Analyzed the data: JGR MJV. Collected data/did experiments for the study: JGR. Enrolled patients: JGR. Wrote the first draft of the paper: JGR. Contributed to the writing of the paper: JGR MJS MLU JJY AG MJV. Contributed to the design and interpretation of results: MLU. Contributed to the development of the analysis plan: JJY. Contributed to the design of the study: MJV.