About the Authors

Rajesh T. Gandhi

rgandhi@partners.org

Affiliation Massachusetts General Hospital and Ragon Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Lu Zheng

Affiliation Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Ronald J. Bosch

Affiliation Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Ellen S. Chan

Affiliation Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

David M. Margolis

Affiliation University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Sarah Read

Affiliation National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Beatrice Kallungal

Affiliation Social & Scientific Systems, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Sarah Palmer

Affiliation Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

Kathy Medvik

Affiliation Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Michael M. Lederman

Affiliation Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

Nadia Alatrakchi

Affiliation Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jeffrey M. Jacobson

Affiliation Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Ann Wiegand

Affiliation National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

Mary Kearney

Affiliation National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

John M. Coffin

Affiliation Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

John W. Mellors

Affiliation University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Joseph J. Eron

Affiliation University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

on behalf of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5244 team

Membership of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5244 team is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Competing Interests

JWM: Gilead Sciences (consultant); Merck (consultant and grant support); Chimerix (consultant); RFS Pharmaceuticals (owns stock options). JJE: Merck, GlaxoSmithKline (consultant and grant support), Bristol-Myers Squibb, Tibotec, Chimerix, Avexa, and Tobira (consultant). RTG: Tibotec (research grant support) and Gilead (grant support). DM: Merck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and GlaxoSmithKline (consultant and research support); Gilead Sciences (research support and common stock); Chimerix (consultant); Roche, Trimeris, and Tibotec (research support).

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: RTG LZ RJB ESC DMM SR BK SP KM MML NA JMJ AW MK JMC JWM JJE. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: RTG LZ RJB ESC DMM SR BK SP KM MML NA JMJ AW MK JMC JWM JJE. Designed the experiments/the study: RTG LZ RJB DMM SR BK JMJ JMC JWM JJE. Analyzed the data: RTG LZ RJB ESC DMM SP KM MML NA JMJ MK JMC JWM. Collected data/did experiments for the study: RTG SP AW MK JWM JJE. Enrolled patients: RTG DMM JWM JJE. Wrote the first draft of the paper: RTG. Contributed to the writing of the paper: LZ RJB DMM BK SP MML NA JMJ MK JMC JWM JJE. Supervised immunology experiments for the study: NA. Performed Single Copy Analysis for the A5244 study and participated in monthly conference calls which discussed the study: AW. Directed the development of the assay used: JMC.