About the Authors

Cathy E. Elks

Affiliations MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Ruth J. F. Loos

Affiliations MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Stephen J. Sharp

Affiliations MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Claudia Langenberg

Affiliations MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Susan M. Ring

Affiliation Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Nicholas J. Timpson

Affiliation MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Andrew R. Ness

Affiliation Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

George Davey Smith

Affiliation MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

David B. Dunger

Affiliation Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Nicholas J. Wareham

Affiliations MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Ken K. Ong

ken.ong@mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk

Affiliations MRC Epidemiology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

George Davey Smith is on the Editorial Board of PLoS Medicine.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: CEE RJFL SS CL SMR NJT ARN GDS DBD NJW KKO. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: CEE RJFL SS CL SMR NJT ARN GDS DBD NJW KKO. Designed the experiments/the study: RJFL GDS DBD NJW KKO. Analyzed the data: CEE GDS KKO. Collected data/did experiments for the study: SMR GDS NJW KKO. Enrolled patients: GDS. Wrote the first draft of the paper: CEE KKO. Contributed to the writing of the paper: CEE RJFL SS CL SMR NJT ARN GDS NJW KKO. This publication is the responsibility of Ken Ong and George Davey-Smith, who had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.