About the Authors

Tran Tinh Hien

Contributed equally to this work with: Tran Tinh Hien, Maciej F. Boni, Juliet E. Bryant, Tran Thuy Ngan, H. Rogier van Doorn

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Southeast Asian Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Network (SEAICRN, Jakarta, Indonesia

Maciej F. Boni

Contributed equally to this work with: Tran Tinh Hien, Maciej F. Boni, Juliet E. Bryant, Tran Thuy Ngan, H. Rogier van Doorn

mboni@oucru.org

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, MRC Centre for Genomics and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

Juliet E. Bryant

Contributed equally to this work with: Tran Tinh Hien, Maciej F. Boni, Juliet E. Bryant, Tran Thuy Ngan, H. Rogier van Doorn

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

Tran Thuy Ngan

Contributed equally to this work with: Tran Tinh Hien, Maciej F. Boni, Juliet E. Bryant, Tran Thuy Ngan, H. Rogier van Doorn

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Southeast Asian Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Network (SEAICRN, Jakarta, Indonesia

Marcel Wolbers

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

Tran Dang Nguyen

Affiliation Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Nguyen Thanh Truong

Affiliation Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Dung

Affiliation Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Do Quang Ha

Affiliation Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Vo Minh Hien

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Tran Tan Thanh

Affiliation Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Le Nguyen Truc Nhu

Affiliation Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Le Thi Tam Uyen

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Pham Thi Nhien

Affiliation Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Nguyen Tran Chinh

Affiliation Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Nguyen Van Vinh Chau

Affiliation Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Jeremy Farrar

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Southeast Asian Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Network (SEAICRN, Jakarta, Indonesia, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

H. Rogier van Doorn

Contributed equally to this work with: Tran Tinh Hien, Maciej F. Boni, Juliet E. Bryant, Tran Thuy Ngan, H. Rogier van Doorn

Affiliations Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Southeast Asian Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Network (SEAICRN, Jakarta, Indonesia, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: TTH MFB JEB TTN MW TDN NTT NTD DQH VMH TTT LNTN LTTU PTN NTC NVVC JF HRvD. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: TTH MFB JEB TTN MW TDN NTT NTD DQH VMH TTT LNTN LTTU PTN NTC NVVC JF HRvD. Designed the experiments/the study: TTH TTN DQH LTTU PTN NVVC JF HRvD. Analyzed the data: TTH MFB JEB MW DQH TTT JF HRvD. Collected data/did experiments for the study: TTH JEB TTN TDN NTT NTD DQH VMH TTT LNTN LTTU PTN HRvD. Enrolled patients: TTH NTT NTD JF. MFB, HRvD, and JEB co-wrote the first draft of the paper, and wrote most of the paper. Contributed to the writing of the paper: TTH MFB JEB TTN MW DQH VMH PTN NTC NVVC JF HRvD. MFB did the epidemiological analysis. MFB and MW did the statistical analysis. TDN collected and analyzed epidemiological data.